Problems of Non-Native Invasive Plant Species

Giant hogweed takes over a river bank (Photo by Gordon Joly)

Plants grow naturally within a particular area, or range. Over the centuries, travelers – including specialist botanist and plantsmen – have brought back new and attractive species to their home countries. While some have remained in botanical gardens or cultivated with tender loving care by gardeners, others have adapted rapidly to their new environments – […]

Endosymbiosis in Aphids: Nutrients from Symbiotic Bacteria Help Greenfly Survive on Plant Sap


The humble aphid may appear unremarkable, but it is cleverly adapted to its plant-sucking way of life. Symbiotic bacteria greatly increase the ability of plant lice, also known as greenflies, to grow and reproduce, causing annoyance to gardeners and damage to crops worldwide. Plant Sap Provides Insufficient Nutrients In general, aphids disregard the flowers, fruits […]