In mathematics, the number * pi*, or π, is defined as the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. The value is approximately 3.14159265…, with infinitely more digits to follow.

Does the Bible define π as exactly 3 when it describes one feature of King Solomon’s temple?

## Mathematics and Geometry Introduce *Pi*

One equation from geometry states that c = 2 * π * r = π * d, where:

- ‘c’ is the circumference of a circle, or the distance around the circle.
- ‘r’ is the radius from the center of a circle to any point on the circle.
- ‘d’ is the diameter across the center of a circle, or exactly twice the radius.

A circle’s circumference is c = π * d. We can solve for π = c / d if we have accurate measurements of ‘c’ and ‘d’.

## The Biblical Measure of Solomon’s Bronze Sea

In the Old Testament of the Bible, the book of First Kings includes a description of the temple that Solomon built. In **I Kings** 7: 23, “*And he made a molten sea, ten cubits from the one brim to the other: it was round all about, and his height was five cubits: and a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about*” (KJV).

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The King James Version (KJV) has been considered to be authoritative by many, but some modern translations are simpler. The New International Version (NIV) reads, “*He made the Sea of cast metal, circular in shape, measuring ten cubits from rim to rim and five cubits high. It took a line of thirty cubits to measure around it*“. Footnotes for this verse indicate the length of a “*cubit*” to be about 1.5 feet.

A *cubit* is the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger, although that definition begs the question of “whose forearm will we use?”

So the Bible states that this circular cast-metal (or “molten”) basin (or “sea”) had a diameter of 10 *cubits* and circumference of 30 *cubits*.

**Click to Read Page Two: Calculating Pi from Solomon’s Temple**

Moishe says

The Vilna Gaon enlightens us to the fact that the value of “pi,” 3.1415, is hinted in this verse. In Hebrew, each letter has a number associated with it. In the above verse, the word “circumference”(kav) is written one way “kuf vav heh” which equals 111 but it is pronounced a slightly different way “kuf vav” which equals 106. (That is, there is a stated value and an actual value.) The ratio of these two numbers equals the ratio of 3 (“pi” as stated by the verse) 3.1415 (the actual value of “pi” to the 10,000th). [ie. (111 / 106) x 3 = 3.1415]